Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can & use its own insulin as well as it should. The common symptoms of diabetes are increased thirst, increased hunger and increased need to urinate. Diabetes has been divided into two types. Type 1 diabetes is when the pancreas can't make insulin and Type 2 diabetes is when the cells don't respond to the insulin properly (insulin resistance) and the pancreas produces inadequate insulin for the body’s increased needs. If the insulin is unable to work adequately, the glucose channels cannot open properly. Glucose builds up in the blood instead of getting into the cells, thereby raising the blood sugar level. Persistently high blood sugar has a damaging and cascading effect on several organs of the body, leading to complications. Type 2 diabetes is considered to be a & lifestyle disease & , because it is more common in people who lead sedentary lives and are overweight or obese. It is strongly associated with high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Type 2 diabetes often runs in families.
The major categories of diabetes broadly fall under the following heads:
- It is a condition in which fasting plasma glucose (FPO) levels are higher than normal range (70 to 100 mg/dL) but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes (100-125 mg/dL). This condition is also called 'impaired fasting glucose-IFO).
- People with pre-diabetes are at a high risk of developing Type-Z Diabetes. Moreover, long-term damage to their heart and blood vessels may already have started.
- Pre-diabetes means a 50 per cent higher risk of heart disease and stroke as compared with someone with normal FPO.
- The good news is that clinical trials have shown that adults with pre-diabetes can prevent or delay the onset of Type-2 diabetes if they follow the right diet and exercise.
Type 1 Diabetes (Diabetes Mellitus 1):
- This is also referred to as juvenile diabetes/insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This condition occurs when the body’s own immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.
- This is a relatively uncommon condition, accounting for less than 10 per cent cases of diabetes. In most cases, it is diagnosed before 30 years of age.
- Unfortunately, this condition is not reversible and the person has to take regular insulin injections lifelong so as to lead a normal life.
Type 2 Diabetes (DM 2):
- It is also called adult onset or non-insulin- dependent diabetes (NIDDM).
- It is the more common form of diabetes, accounting for up to 90 per cent cases of diabetes.
- People with Type-Z diabetes produce adequate insulin but their blood cells cannot use it (‘a condition of & insulin resistance’).
- It usually occurs in adults over 35 years old, but can affect anyone, including children.
- It is usually a lifestyle disease related to obesity, physical inactivity and age, and to some extent, the family history.
Do you know there is no health insurance policy available in India for Type 1 Diabetes. Our experts compared the 5 health insurance plans available for Type 2 Diabetes patients.
Other diabetic forms:
Tvpe J Diabetes: It is caused due to the resistance of insulin in the brain. This condition is a type of Alzheimer’s disease. Gestational Diabetes: It occurs in women during pregnancy. This has higher chances of getting converted into Type-2 diabetes if left uncured. Gestational diabetes is normally covered under the maternity benefits of a health insurance policy.
- The sugar (plasma glucose) level in your blood is more than 1Z6 mg/dL when tested during fasting (performed in the morning as this provides the body with adequate time to fast).
- The blood in sugar level exceeds Z00 mg/dL under random testing method, if you choose to do the test after food (about two hours after normal food intake)
- Your HbA1c test, also known as the haemoglobin A1c or glycated haemoglobin test, returns a reading of 6.0-6.4 per cent.
Common Symptoms include:
- Increased thirst
- Increased hunger (especially after eating)
- Dry mouth
- Frequent urination
- Unexplained weight loss (in spite of regular eating and hunger)
- Fatigue (weak/tired feeling)
- Blurred vision
- Loss of consciousness (very rare)
- Slow healing sores or cuts
- Itching of the skin
- Frequent yeast infections
- Recent weight gain
- Numbness or tingling of the hands and feet
- Impotence or erectile dysfunctions